The deterrence value of competition policy can and should be measured

August 17, 2017

(by Steve Davies) In a post last year, I argued that it was time for competition economists, both academics and practitioners, to start seriously tackling one of the big unknowns: how much harm is deterred by Competition Law and the Competition Authorities (CAs)? In this blog I pull together some results from three recently completed papers on cartel deterrence. I believe that these importantly move forward our understanding of this great unknown, and merit exposure to a non-academic audience in a non-technical way.

We have three ‘headline’ results. Read the rest of this entry »


Has the CAT’s MasterCard decision killed off opt-out class actions by indirect purchasers?

August 10, 2017

(by Sebastian Peyer) On 21 July the Competition Appeal Tribunal (‘CAT’) rejected an application for an opt-out collective proceedings order (‘CPO’) in Walter Hugh Merricks v Mastercard Inc, thereby  blocking the largest opt-out competition claim brought in the UK to date and one of the first large indirect purchaser actions. The applicant brought the claim on behalf of 46.2 million people asking Mastercard for around £14 billion in compensation. Despite the negative outcome for the applicant (and millions of consumers), the CAT’s decision has clarified a number of important points for future CPO applications. But the Tribunal’s decision may have also inadvertently raised the bar for indirect purchaser claims. Read the rest of this entry »


Brexit uncertainty: fewer mergers, big business winners

June 5, 2017

(by Peter Ormosi)[1] While it is widely recognised that last year’s EU referendum caused significant uncertainty for markets, some early indications were that it had not reduced the level of business confidence. Almost a year on, our research – based on a careful study design of a treatment and control group and using data from S&P’s Capital IQ  – finds that the uncertainty surrounding the referendum has in fact led to a significant drop in merger numbers and the numbers have failed to recover to earlier levels.[2] Apart from establishing a causal relationship, the study suggests that the post-referendum policy uncertainty is helping the largest M&A transactions, while hindering the smaller ones, with possible negative consequences.

Read the rest of this entry »


Competition law is an appropriate tool to prevent exploitative price hikes in Pharma

May 26, 2017

(by Sven Gallasch) On 15 May the European Commission formally opened an investigation into Aspen Pharma’s pricing practices concerning five life-saving cancer drugs. This European investigation represents the latest enforcement effort in a string of cases emerging across Europe, including in the United Kingdom and Italy. All investigations are focussed on pharmaceutical pricing practices and allege that their pricing strategies may be exploitative[1] and amount to an abuse of a dominant position.  The surge in these previously rare exploitative pricing cases, has set off alarm bells in the pharmaceutical sector, among legal counsel of big pharma and some academic commentators. Read the rest of this entry »


An energy price cap could kill competition – here’s a better idea

May 3, 2017

(by Catherine Waddams) The Conservatives have announced that their manifesto will include a pledge to cap the price of energy bills. This comes just two years after Labour campaigned to freeze household energy prices. The Tories are yet to flesh out the details of their plan, but it has already drawn strong reactions both for and against. The price of energy stirs deep emotions in part because it is a necessity, one which absorbs a much higher proportion[1] of the income of those in poverty and “just about managing” than of richer households.

But there are two other important features: Read the rest of this entry »


European Commission launches new anonymous whistleblower tool, but who would use it?

March 21, 2017

(by Andreas Stephan) On 16 March 2017, the European Commission announced the launch of a new online tool to make it easier for individuals to alert it to secret cartels and other violations of competition law. What makes this tool innovative, is that it allows potential whistleblowers to maintain their anonymity via an encrypted messaging system, with two-way communication, giving them the confidence to report cartels. The tailor-made system is maintained by an external intermediary and is designed to be entirely secure. Read the rest of this entry »


Can care homes survive with privately funded residents cross-subsidising those who are state funded?

February 2, 2017

(by Morten Hviid) Care homes often take a mix of privately funded and state funded residents. Recent research by a leading provider of market information about the care home sector, LaingBuisson, assesses that the average fee per resident with a local authority (LA) assisted place fell short of what it costs care homes to provide the care by £104 p.w.. They also argue that the shortfall is picked up by private fee payers who are thereby providing a cross-subsidy. They refer to this as a hidden “care tax”.  The existence of this cross-subsidy is nothing new. The predecessor of the Competition and Markets Authority, the OFT, found the same in a report from 2005.  However, the size of the cross-subsidy is notable.  Even without assessing the strength of the new research, which is not publicly available, several aspects of this news story are worth pondering further.  Should LAs use any buyer power they might have when negotiating prices?  What are the consequences for the care market from the cross-subsidy?  Why are care homes willing to accept below cost prices?  These questions have added current importance because the CMA is undertaking a Market Study into the care home market. Read the rest of this entry »